Hand chart for the Big Five personality dimension Conscientiousness (2016) Hand chart for the Big Five personality dimension Extraversion (2016) Hand chart for the Big Five personality dimension Neuroticism (2016) Hand chart for hypercalcemia (1971) Hand chart for arthrogryposis (1981) Hand chart for cri-du-chat syndrome - Hautleistenfibel (1981) Hand chart for Down syndrome (2011) Hand chart for Edwards syndrome (1981) Hand chart for fragile-X syndrome (2014) Hand chart for Holt-Oram syndrome (1981) Hand chart for Kabuki syndrome (A. Chudley) Hand chart for Klinefelter syndrome (A. Rodewald & H. Zankl, 1981) Hand chart for Cornelia de Lange syndrome (A. Rodewald & H. Zankl, 1981) Hand chart for Patau syndrome (1981) Hand chart for Prader-Willi syndrome (1971) Hand chart for rubella syndrome (1971) Hand chart for Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (1971) Hand chart for Turner syndrome - Hautleistenfibel (1981) Hand chart for Williams syndrome (R. Rodewald, 1994) Hand chart for Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (B. Schaumann & M. Alter, 1976) Hand chart for XXYY syndrome (1971) Hand chart for XYY syndrome (1971) Hand chart for 18p- syndrome, a.ka. de Grouchy syndrome 1 (1981)

- Some of the available hand charts are displayed above - you can use the displayed pictures above for browsing -


Publication: november 21, 2015

Hand Charts for 18 deletion syndromes!

18p- syndrome - a.k.a. de Grouchy syndrome 1 - is a genetic condition caused by a deletion of the short arm (the p arm) of chromosome 18; typical features include: mental retardation, short stature & small hands. 18p- occurs in about 1 of every 40,000 live births.

18q- syndrome - a.k.a. de Grouchy syndrome 2 - is a genetic condition caused by a deletion of the short arm (the p arm) of chromosome 18; typical features include: mental retardation, short stature & short thumbs. 18q- occurs in about 1 of every 40,000 live births.

Ring 18 syndrome (18r)- is an extremely rare genetic is a rare disorder in which there is deletion of chromosomal material from both ends of the 18th chromosome and joining of the ends to form a ring; typical features include: mental retardation, short stature & tapering fingers. Since 1960 ring 18 syndrome has been described for only about 60 case reports.


Prevalence: all three 18 deletion syndrome variants together is close to 1 in 20,000 live births.

Hand charts are available for each of the three variants of the 18 deletion syndrome, which describe the significance of various typical features inside especially the dermatoglyphics thatmanifest often combined with the presence of a simian line (= single transverse flexion crease) - see pictures below.


NOTICE: Individual hand features described below should not get associated in isolation with any theme; only combinations involving multiple hand levels have potential for diagnostic purposes.

Hand chart for de Grouchy syndrome 1 - Hautleistenfibel (1981).
Hand chart source:
Hautleistenfibel (1981), p.85;
authors: R. Rodewald & H. Zankl


Hand chart for de Grouchy syndrome 2 - Hautleistenfibel (1981).
Hand chart source:
Hautleistenfibel (1981), p.87;
authors: A. Rodewald & H. Zankl


Hand chart for de Grouchy syndromes: 18r + 18p- + 18q-, Dermatoglyphics in Medical Disorders (1976).
Hand chart source:
Dermatoglyphics in Medical Disorders (1976), p.192;
authors: B. Schaumann & M. Alter




Other significant hand signs (not reported inside the hand charts):

In some individuals with 18p- relatively small hands may be present (source: NORD).

Chromosome 18q- syndrome is also often associated with distinctive abnormalities of the hands, including long, thin, tapered hands and/or abnormal placement of the thumbs (source: NORD).


All significant hand signs listed above for 18 deletion syndromes together cover four out of the nine perspectives of the hand as defined according Multi-Perspective Hand Reading (including hand level 3, 5, 8 & 9).

A summary of the most significant hand sign combinations in de Grouchy syndrome 1 & 2 is described here:

Decoding the language of the hand:
hand sign combinations in de Grouchy syndrome 1 & 2!





Hand charts are available for many other diagnostic issues;
start browsing HERE


Martijn van Mensvoort - Hand Research

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