Hand chart for the Big Five personality dimension Agreeableness (2017) Hand chart for the Big Five personality dimension Conscientiousness (2017) Hand chart for the Big Five personality dimension Extraversion (2017) Hand chart for the Big Five personality dimension Neuroticism (2017) Hand chart for the Big Five personality dimension Openness (2017) Hand chart for hypercalcemia (1971) Hand chart for arthrogryposis (1981) Hand chart for cri-du-chat syndrome - Hautleistenfibel (1981) Hand chart for Down syndrome (2011) Hand chart for Edwards syndrome (1981) Hand chart for fragile-X syndrome (2014) Hand chart for Holt-Oram syndrome (1981)

Hand chart for Kabuki syndrome (A. Chudley) Hand chart for Klinefelter syndrome (A. Rodewald & H. Zankl, 1981) Hand chart for Cornelia de Lange syndrome (A. Rodewald & H. Zankl, 1981) Hand chart for Patau syndrome (1981) Hand chart for Prader-Willi syndrome (1971) Hand chart for rubella syndrome (1971) Hand chart for Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (1971) Hand chart for Turner syndrome - Hautleistenfibel (1981) Hand chart for Williams syndrome (R. Rodewald, 1994) Hand chart for Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (B. Schaumann & M. Alter, 1976) Hand chart for XXYY syndrome (1971) Hand chart for XYY syndrome (1971) Hand chart for 18p- syndrome, a.ka. de Grouchy syndrome 1 (1981)

- Some of the available hand charts are displayed above - you can use the displayed pictures above for browsing-


Publication: november 29, 2015

Hand Charts for Turner syndrome!

Turner syndrome (TS) - also known as Ullrich-Turner syndrome, gonadal dysgenesis and 45,X [XO] - is a condition in which a female is partly or completely missing an X chromosome. Signs and symptoms vary among those affected, but nearly all are unable to have children.

Prevalence: close to 1 in 2,000 female births have Turner syndrome.

Two hand charts are available for Turner syndrome describing the significance of various typical dermatoglyphic features often combined with a simian line (= single transverse flexion crease) - see pictures below.


NOTICE: Individual hand features described below should not get associated in isolation with any theme; only combinations involving multiple hand levels have potential for diagnostic purposes.

Hand chart for Turner syndrome - Hautleistenfibel (1981).
Hand chart source:
Hautleistenfibel (1981), p.97;
authors: A. Rodewald & H. Zankl


Hand chart for Turner syndrome - Handbook of Clinical Dermatoglyphs (1971).
Hand chart source:
Handbook of Clinical Dermatoglyphs (1971), p.39;
authors: M.S. Elbualy & J.D. Schindeler




Other significant hand signs (not reported inside the hand charts):

Positive metacarpal sign, or shortening of the 4th metacarpal - see photo below - is the most characteristic skeletal finding in Turner syndrome; incidence in Turner syndrome varies from 33% to 77% - versus 10% in the general population (source: E. Laurencikas et al., 2009).

Positive metacarpal sign: shortening of the 4th metacarpal is the most characteristic skeletal finding in Turner syndrome.

The characteristic nail changes seen in up to 70% of infants and young children with Turner syndrome are probably due to lymphoedema. Fingernails are often small. Nails show over-curvature, either concave (bowl-shaped) with the free edge turned up or deep set and overcurved side to side (convex overcurvature). Toenails tend to be more affected than fingernails. This can result in paronychia or pain when wearing shoes. Nail pitting may also occur. The nail changes tend to improve with age. (Source: DermNet NZ)

Turner syndrome nail features (70% incidence): small, narrow, hyperconvex, inserted at acute angle.

In Turner syndrome newborns hands (and feet) are often swollen or puffy at birth, and soft nails that turn upward at the ends when they are older is also often seen. These features appear to be due to obstruction of the lymphatic system during fetal development (source: National Institutes of Health).

Positive metacarpal sign: shortening of the 4th metacarpal is the most characteristic skeletal finding in Turner syndrome.


All significant hand signs listed above for Turner syndrome together cover five out of the nine perspectives of the hand as defined according Multi-Perspective Hand Reading (including hand level 4, 6, 7, 8 & 9).

A summary of the most significant hand sign combinations in Turner syndrome is described here:

Decoding the language of the hand:
hand sign combinations in Turner syndrome!





Hand charts are available for many other diagnostic issues;
start browsing HERE


Martijn van Mensvoort - Hand Research

© COPYRIGHT 2002-2017:
Martijn van Mensvoort | Contact | Privacy Policy