- Published: januari 26, 2015 (last update: may 23, 2017) -

Phantom Pictures for the Hand
in Extraverts & Introverts: 7 hand signs!

After earlier reports presented strong evidence pointing out that 6 vertical hand factors are significantly associated with the Big Five personality dimension Extraversion-Introversion, new confirming evidence is reported here for a 7th vertical hand factor related to the dermatoglyphic patterns. This latest finding made it possible now to discriminate all studied extraverts (N=28) from all introverts (N=21), and detailed phantom pictures for the hand now appear to make it possible to understand the underlying biological mechanisms involved!

In extraverts the typical hand signs show a relatively high activity inside the ulnar side of the hand (= pinky side), plus a relatively low activity inside the radial side of the hand (= thumb side). This distribution of activity had earlier been reported to be significant at multiple levels of the hand involving finger length, palm shape, major palmar creases, and one single aspect of the dermatoglyphics; now the distribution of dermatoglyphic patterns covering almost the full hand is added. In introverts the typical hand signs show the opposite tendency: relatively high activity inside the radial side, plus relatively low activity inside the ulnar side.

Phantom pictures are presented below, and the sequence of this article has the purpose to highlight the significance of the underlying research findings and the biological mechanisms, involving e.g. the dermatoglyphics (fingerprints) and the prenatal volar pads.

NOTE: High resolution version of picture below for the hand in Extraversion (+ introversion)
is available HERE.

Phantom pictures for the hands in extraverts & introverts.

A 100% success-score for the Dutch population
based on 7 vertical hand factors

The histogram presented on the right represents the regression-result based on the 7 vertical hand factors combined (where the dermatoglyphics patterns together represent the 7th vertical hand factor, more details are presented in the next paragraph) - large version of the histogram is available HERE.

The new hand model produced a 100% success-score for the full Dutch population [N=48], which implicates that all 28 extraverts got separated from all 21 introverts. Contrary to the previous report (march 2014) it became no longer necessary to separate first the males from the female, nor the use of any type of control-mechanism.

The IBM SPSS Statistics 21 produced the following extraversion-hand factor regression formula:

Histogram regression result based on 7 hand factors for the introverts & extraverts.

Linear regression analysis result for Extraversion = 7,040 - (4,152 x A) - (6,752 x B) - (1,429 x C) - (0,163 x D) + (0,195 x E) + (0,056 x F) + (0,552 x G)

A = finger length to palm width ratio [sig. = 0.026];
B = triradial ab vs. ad ratio [sig. = 0.000];
C = twin line between transverse lines (= between the head line + heart line) [sig. = 0.011];
D = proximal transverse line (= head line) connection / disconnection [sig. = 0.103];
E = distal transverse line (= heart line) curve / simian line [sig. = 0.042];
F = hypothenar vs. thenar ratio [sig. = 0.080];
G = dermatoglyphics patterns sum [sig. = 0.000].

NOTICE: sig. describes the level of significance for each individual hand factor; it is especially interesting to notice that those details indicate that the 2 hand factors that relate to the dermatoglyphics (B & G) have the highest weights in the results.

Earlier reports:

Extraversion hand chart 2014 - Extraversion, 2d:4d digit ratio & hand shape - Extraversion: 6 hand signs -

The biological mechanism behind the dermatoglyphic patterns!

In order to understand the above presented research results more properly it is especially useful to be aware that dermatoglyphic patterns reflect prenatal development of the volar pads, with arch patterns (where 'true patterns' such as loops en whorls are missing) representing low volar pad development (see picture presented below). This implicates that the distribution of arch patterns and 'true patterns' provide some insight in which parts of the hand were most active during prenatal life (at the stage where volar pads become manifest).

Early prenatal volar pad development predicts the fingerprint pattern configuration.

Early prenatal volar pad development predicts fingerprint pattern configuration.

The human palm is commonly known to show a clear tendency to have 'true patterns' at the ulnar side of the hand: most common is a loop in the palmar zone between the pinky and ring finger; however, inside the radial part of the palm 'true patterns' are usually missing. This distribution of could represent sort of a counter-balance for motoric activity of the hand (as the fine motorics are more well developed in the radial part of the hand).

A likewise tendency is found in the fingerprints, because arches (read: missing of 'true patterns') are most commonly found on the index finger, and arches are least common in the pinky- and ring fingers.

Interestingly, this natural distribution of 'true patterns' (read: loops or whorls) towards the ulnar side of the hand.

It often manifests more persistent in the palm and/or the fingers of extraverts; additionally, a less persistent tendency of the typical distribution is seen in introverts. However, this tendency is subtle and it tends to manifest especially in the manifestation of less common patterns - such as e.g. the presence of palmar whorls, radial palmar patterns, the position of the axial triradius, and the distribution of fingerprints arches. More details are described inside the picture below.

NOTICE: Beyond the contents of this article, a more thorough analysis involving 18 fingerprint pattern types is presented inside the article: Fingerprints & Behavior.

Distribution of dermatoglyphics patterns in Introverts & Extraverts.

Distribution of dermatoglyphics patterns in Introverts & Extraverts.

These dermatoglyphic findings appear to show evidence of a tendency in introverts towards a counter-balance of volar pad and dermatoglyphic activity on the radial side of the hand - this may even result in less motoric activity, and thus an inclination towards a smaller impulse towards interactivity with the outer world (compared to extraverts). A missing c triradius is relatively common in Introverts (E- scorers).

The final paragraph of this article describes a wider perspective for the interpretation of the results & guidelines presented inside this article regarding the ulnar- and radial side of the hand, involving some research findings related to various problem behaviors.

Behaviors and the hand: a fundamental perspective derived from scientific research!

Digit ratio studies have pointed out that internalizing problem behaviors (which usually get associated with symptoms related to: anxiety or depression) tend to be featured with longer finger length development at the radial side of the hand; externalizing problem behaviors (which usually get associated with symptoms related to: Attention Deficient Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder) tend to be featured with longer finger length development at the ulnar side of the hand.

This implicates that there is a clear parallel between on the one side for the radial side of the hand regarding introvert behaviors and internalizing problem behaviors, and on the other side for the ulnar side of the hand regarding extravert behaviors and externalizing problems behaviors. The picture below describes a few more details.

Behaviors and the hand: a fundamental perspective derived from scientific research.

Behaviors and the hand: likewised results for normal behaviors and problem behaviors.

NOTICE: The prenatal anatomic development of the hand provides various clues which indicate that the first developments become manifest at the radial side of the hand: first of all, [1] the thumb separates first from the other fingers (M.U. Kuecken, 2004; page 49)), and additionally [2] the creases (R.S. Bali, 1994; page 50, 51 & 85) and [3] dermatoglyphics (A.G. de Wilde, 1979; page 208) manifests both earlier at the radial side of the hand. This provides a deeper understanding why the radial part of the hand tends to correlate with internalizing & introvert behaviors and the ulnar part of the hand tends to correlate with externalizing & extravert behaviors, because it concerns a prental fact that the more internal positioned body parts tend to develop before the external body parts!

The position of the personality dimension Neuroticism in the perspective of the full Big Five model (Five Factor Model).

Extraversion represent a dimension of the Big Five model, a.k.a. the 'Five Factor Model' (FFM).
The model is designed to describe the full 'color-spectrum' of a personality, including:
the classic temperaments, cognitive stability & cognitive flexibility.

Final notification: case studies will become available in the near future; meanwhile you might want to explore
the other four Big Five dimensions Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism & Openness!

All Big Five hand charts are presented together inside the article:
Hand sign constellations in the Big Five personality dimensions.

Hand Biometry - Hand Research - Hand Reading

Martijn van Mensvoort - Hand Research

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