FEBRUARY 12, 2017

Hand index correlates with
genetic variation & genetic distance!

In the past various biometric indices became recognized to present reliable measures for determining sex, race and stature of an individual. However, only a few of these indices of these have been used to determine personality of individual, predisposition to certain disease, etc. One of these is the the ratio between hand breadth and hand length, a.k.a. the so-called 'hand index'.


Structure of a DNA polymerase for the hand: palm, finger, thumb & pad.

- DNA polymerase for the hand -
This article presents new materials describing how the 'hand index' can be sub-divided into two hand breadth [PB] ratios, based on on palm length (PB/PL) and finger length (PB/FL). An analysis including 19 human populations & 23 primate populations reveals that these hand breadth measures are highly sensitive for discriminating these populations from each other. The results also suggest that palm length [PL], finger length [FL] and digit ratio [2D:4D] appear about half less sensitive for this purpose.

The continuation of this article first presents a picture describing how the 'hand index' correlates with genetic distance between primate species - NOTICE: the green table inside the picture e.g. describes how both the genetic distance and the 'hand index' is relatively small between chimpanzees and bonobos (+ relatively large between gorillas and gibbons). The picture also presents a visual impression of the variation in the 2 aspects of the 'hand index': the finger-aspect [PB/FL] & the palm-aspect [PB/PL]; the proportions for virtual balance are also displayed inside the picture.


Then a video is presented displaying how the proportions of the hand have evolved during evolution from a low 'hand index' (featured with e.g. a short thumb & low 2D:4D digit ratio) into a high 'hand index' with the typical 'human digital formula' (featured with a long thumb & high 2D:4D digit ratio).

Finally, a table is presented describing proportional data (involving hand shape- & finger proportions) for 19 human populations + 23 primate populations. The article is finished with a quick summary of strongest tendencies among 19 human populations for 5 proportional hand factors.




Hand index correlates with genetic distance!





This video displays how the proportions of the hand evolved during evolution from a low 'hand index' (featured with
e.g. a short thumb & low 2D:4D digit ratio) into a high 'hand index' with the typical 'human digital formula':
3D>4D>2D>1D>5D (featured with a long thumb & high 2D:4D digit ratio).





Hand proportions.

Variations for hand shape & finger length proportions
in 19 human populations + 23 primate species!



Blue ratios in table below are well above the reference value,
yellow ratios in table below are well below the reference value:

PRIMATE
SPECIES
Genetic distance
PB/HL

PB/PL

PB/FL

FL/HL

FL/PL

Digit Formula

2D:4D ratio
Virtual balance:
-

0.5
1.0


1.0

0.5
1.0


3D>4D=2D>1D>5D


1.0

Reference values:

-

0.455
+0,03/-0,03
0.80
+0,04/-0,04
1.04
+0,05/-0,05
0.432
+0,03/-0,03
0.76
+0,04/-0,04
3D>4D>2D>1D>5D

0.96
+0,05/-0,05
Human avg. est.:
0%

0.453
0.797


1.046

0.433
0.762


3D>4D>2D>1D>5D


0.967

_Human international
_populations:


Malaysia (1) (max. 0,5%) 0.515 0.875 1.258 0.410 0.696 3D>2D>4D>1D>5D 1.005
Korea (1,2) (max. 0,5%) 0.466 0.811 1.076 0.433 0.754 3D>4D>2D>1D>5D 0.950
India (1,2) (max. 0,5%) 0.460 0.814 1.055 0.436 0.772 3D>4D>2D>1D>5D 0.972
Australia (1,2) (max. 0,5%) 0.456 0.799 1.060 0.430 0.752 3D>4D>2D>1D>5D 0.986
Netherlands (1,2) (max. 0,5%) 0.455 0.797 1.058 0.430 0.753 3D>4D>2D>1D>5D 0.987
US (1,2,3) (max. 0,5%) 0.454 0.805 1.037 0.437 0.776 3D>4D>2D>1D>5D 0.991
Turkey (1,2) (max. 0,5%) 0.444 0.781 1.031 0.431 0.757 3D>4D>2D>1D>5D 0.993
China (1,2) (max. 0,5%) 0.438 0.773 1.004 0.436 0.769 3D>4D>2D>1D>5D 0.933
Japan (1,2) (max. 0,5%) 0.428 0.758 0.982 0.436 0.772 3D>4D>2D>1D>5D 0.953

_Human professional
_populations:


Masculine men (max. 0,5%) 0.534 0.951 1.220 0.438 0.780 3D>4D>2D>1D>5D 0.929
US presidents (max. 0,5%) 0.476 0.840 1.100 0.433 0.763 3D>4D>2D>1D>5D 0.949
Sumo wrestlers (max. 0,5%) 0.456 0.832 1.008 0.452 0.825 3D>4D>2D>1D>5D 0.942
Supermodels (max. 0,5%) 0.417 0.734 0,966 0.432 0.760 3D>4D>2D>1D>5D 0.959

_Human genetic
_populations:


Males XY 0.459 0.806 1.066 0.431 0.756 3D>4D>2D>1D>5D 0.962
Females XX 0.445 0.787 1.027 0.434 0.768 3D>4D>2D>1D>5D 0.971
Achondroplasia FGFR3 gene 0.572 0.95 1.429 0.398 0.66 3D>4D>2D>1D>5D 0.96
Fragile-X syndrome Xq27.3 gene 0.494 0.88 1.124 0.438 0.78 3D>4D>2D>1D>5D 0.95
Down syndrome Trisomy 21 0.476 0.81 1.149 0.412 0.70 3D>4D>2D>1D>5D 0.95
Marfan syndrome FBN1 gene 0.370 0.67 0.826 0.448 0.81 3D>4D>2D>1D>5D 0.96

_Non-human apes
_[average]:


[0.380]


[0.6333]


[0.853]


[0.405]


[0.692]


[3D>4D>2D>5D>1D]


[0.932]
Gorillas 1,9% 0.567 0.879 1.511 0.354 0.549 3D>4D>2D>5D>1D 0.89
Bonobos 1,3% 0.392 0.67 0.952 0.415 0.71 3D>4D>2D>5D>1D 0.94
Chimpanzees 1,0% 0.361 0.610 0.887 0.408 0.688 3D>4D>2D>5D>1D 0.91
Orangutans 3,1% 0.326 0.512 0,896 0.363 0.571 3D>4D>2D>5D>1D 0.89
Gibbons 4,2% 0.254 0.493 0.524 0.485 0.940 3D>2D>4D>5D>1D 1.03

_Old World Monkeys
_[average]:


[0.338]


[0.562]


[0.819]


[0.401]


[0.671]


[3D>4D>2D>5D>1D]


[0.808]
Baboons 6,6% 0.433 0.684 1.182 0.367 0.579 3D>4D>2D>5D>1D 0.86
Macaques 6,1% 0.362 0.630 0.852 0.425 0.740 3D>4D>2D>5D>1D 0.85
Guenon monkeys 6,3% 0.336 0.551 0.860 0.391 0.641 3D>4D>2D>5D>1D 0.86
Surili monkeys 7,1% 0.309 0.487 0.845 0.366 0.577 3D>4D>2D>5D>1D 0.80
Colobus monkeys 7,2% 0.297 0.514 0.685 0.422 0.730 3D>4D>2D>5D>1D 0.65
Longnose monkey 7,2% 0.288 0.507 0.667 0.432 0.761 3D>4D>2D>5D>1D 0.83

_New World Monkeys
_[average]:


[0.370]


[0.655]


[0.835]


[0.436]


[0.776]


[3D>4D>2D>5D>1D]


[0.926]
Squirrel monkeys ? 0.418 0.758 0.877 0.464 0.864 3D>4D>2D>5D>1D 0.93
Capuchin monkey 12,3% 0.394 0.714 0.877 0.449 0.814 3D>2D>4D>5D>1D 1.09
Night monkeys ? 0.384 0.686 0.873 0.440 0.786 3D>4D>2D>5D>1D 0.84
Tamarin monkeys ? 0.339 0.583 0.808 0.419 0.722 3D>4D>2D>5D>1D 0.94
Spider monkeys ? 0.315 0.533 0.755 0.409 0.693 3D>4D>2D>5D>1D 0.83

_Prosimians:
Tarsiers 24,8% 0.294 0.745 0.481 0.605 1.531 3D>2D>4D>5D>1D 1.02

_Non tarsier prosimians
_[average]:


[0.330]


[0.668]


[0.655]


[0.483]


[1.033]


[4D>3D>5D>2D>1D]


[0.547]
Bush babies 28,1% 0.357 0.769 0.667 0.536 1.154 4D>3D>5D>2D>1D 0.66
Lorises ? 0.345 0.714 0.667 0.517 1,071 4D>3D>5D>2D>1D 0.60
Slow lorises ? 0.345 0.625 0.769 0.348 0.813 4D>3D>5D>1D>2D 0.45
Potos ? 0.333 0.588 0.769 0.433 0.765 4D>3D>5D>1D>2D 0.20
Lemurs 22,1% 0.311 0.563 0.693 0.448 0.813 4D>3D>5D>2D>1D 0.74
Aye-ayes ? 0.290 0.750 0.474 0.613 1.583 4D>3D>5D>2D>1D 0.63



PRIMATE
SPECIES

PB/HL

PB/PL

PB/FL

FL/HL

FL/PL

Digit Formula

2D:4D ratio
Discriminative
indicators amount:



4x
23x
6x
24x
8x
24x
6x
7x
11x
11x
10x
22x
3x
17x



Summary of strongest tendencies
among 19 human populations:


• PB/HL (= hand index):
- high PB/HL values [> 0.485] in: masculine males, achondroplasia, Malaysians;
- low PB/HL values [< 0.425] in: Marfan syndrome & supermodels (likely slender constitution).

• PB/PL (= 1st aspect of hand index: palm index):
- high PB/PL values [> 0.84] in: masculine males, achondroplasia, Malaysians, fragile-x syndrome, US presidents;
- low PB/PL values [< 0.76] in: Marfan syndrome, supermodels, Japanese (likely slender constitution).

• PB/FL (= 2nd aspect of hand index):
- high PB/FL values [> 1.09] in: achondroplasia, Malaysians, masculine males, Down syndrome, fragile-x syndrome, US presidents;
- low PB/FL values [< 0.99] in: Marfan syndrome, supermodels, Japanese (likely slender constitution).


• FL/HL (= finger index):
- high FL/HL values [> 0.462] in: (no populations identified);
- low FL/HL values [< 0.402] in: achondroplasia.

• FL/PL (= finger length to palm length ratio):
- high FL/PL values [> 0.80] in: Sumo wrestlers & Marfan syndrome (likely long limbs);
- low FL/PL values [< 0.72] in: achondroplasia, Down syndrome & Malaysians (likely short limbs).

• 2D:4D (= digit ratio):
- high FL/HL values [> 1.00] in: (no populations identified);
- low FL/HL values [< 0.92] in: (no populations identified).


NOTICE: The hand research Big Five personality project has so far also confirmed the relatively high sensentivity regarding the 'hand breadth' factor: e.g. hand index [PB/HL] has been reported to correlate negative with Conscientiousness and the 2nd aspect of the hand index [PB/FL] has been reported to correlate possitive with Extraversion. Additionally, only a small significant effect has been reported for the 2d:4d digit ratio (combined with overall hand shape) regarding Extraversion.

(Finger length proportions also do appear to play a small part in the Big Five dimension Altruïsm, more details will follow in the future)





GLOSSARY:

PB/HL = Hand Index (= palm breadth/hand length)
FL/HL = Finger Index (= finger length/hand length)
FL/PB = finger length / palm breadth
FL/PL = finger length / palm length
PB/PL = palm breadth / palm length

Digit formula:

1D = Thumb | 2D = Index finger | 3D = Middle finger | 4D = Ring finger | 5D = Pinky finger

2D:4D = digit ratio (= Index finger/Ring finger)






- Primate hand drawings from A. H. Schultz, The Life of Primates (Universe Books, 1969) -


Hands: the primate family tree!


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