Hand chart for the Big Five personality dimension Agreeableness (2017) Hand chart for the Big Five personality dimension Conscientiousness (2017) Hand chart for the Big Five personality dimension Extraversion (2017) Hand chart for the Big Five personality dimension Neuroticism (2017) Hand chart for the Big Five personality dimension Openness (2017) Hand chart for hypercalcemia (1971) Hand chart for arthrogryposis (1981) Hand chart for cri-du-chat syndrome - Hautleistenfibel (1981) Hand chart for Down syndrome (2011) Hand chart for Edwards syndrome (1981) Hand chart for fragile-X syndrome (2014) Hand chart for Holt-Oram syndrome (1981)

Hand chart for Kabuki syndrome (A. Chudley) Hand chart for Klinefelter syndrome (A. Rodewald & H. Zankl, 1981) Hand chart for Cornelia de Lange syndrome (A. Rodewald & H. Zankl, 1981) Hand chart for Patau syndrome (1981) Hand chart for Prader-Willi syndrome (1971) Hand chart for rubella syndrome (1971) Hand chart for Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (1971) Hand chart for Turner syndrome - Hautleistenfibel (1981) Hand chart for Williams syndrome (R. Rodewald, 1994) Hand chart for Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (B. Schaumann & M. Alter, 1976) Hand chart for XXYY syndrome (1971) Hand chart for XYY syndrome (1971) Hand chart for 18p- syndrome, a.ka. de Grouchy syndrome 1 (1981)

- Some of the available hand charts are displayed above - you can use the displayed pictures above for browsing-


Publication: november 17, 2015

Hand Charts for Williams syndrome!

Williams syndrome (WS), a.k.a. Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS), is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by: an "elfin" facial appearance, an unusually cheerful demeanor & ease with strangers, combined with developmental delay featured with strong language skills; cardiovascular problems are also typical.

Prevalence: Present roughly one in 14,000 births.

One hand charts is available for Kabuki syndrome describing the significance of various typical dermatoglyphics, often combined with a Sydney line - see picture below.


NOTICE: Individual hand features described below should not get associated in isolation with any theme; only combinations involving multiple hand levels have potential for diagnostic purposes.

QUOTE: '"Phantom picture" of Williams-Beurend syndrome. 1 = frequent whorls on all fingertips; 2 = radial loops on 3rd and/or 4th finger; 3 = absence of the c triradius (C-0); 4 = A line terminations in 5/5'/5"; 5 = D line terminations in 11; 6 = frequent distal axial triradius t"; 7 = very frequent Sydney line; 8 = ulnarly displaced t triradius; 9 = papillary ridge dysplasia and/or hypoplasia.

Hand chart for Williams syndrome (A. Rodewald, 1994).

Hand chart + quote source:
Dermatoglyphic Pecularities in Patients With Williams-Beuren syndrome;
Am J Med Genet, 1994 Nov; 31(3) - 53: p.233; authors: A. Rodewald, et al.




Other significant hand signs (not reported inside the hand charts):

A short 5th metacarpal bone (50%) has been observed in about half of Williams syndrome patients - see picture below; a short 4th metacarpal bone (40%) is also very common (source: I. Borg et al., 2015).

A short 5th metacarpal bone is common in about half of Williams syndrome patients.

Clinodactyly of the 5th finger (50%) is also seen in about half of William syndrome patients - see picture below; clinodactyly of the 4th finger (10%) may be present as well (source: I. Borg et al., 2015).

Clinodactyly of the 5th finger is seen in about half of Williams syndrome patients.
Clinodactyly of the 5th finger is very common in Williams syndrome.


Some individuals with Williams syndrome display stereotyped behaviours such as hand flapping. Also, about 90% of children with WS are hypersensitive to particular sounds that would not cause discomfort in most people; the noises may be very distressing to the WS children, who will typically put their hands over their ears. (Source: Canadian Association for Williams Syndrome)

Short nails is also recognized to represent a common feature inside the pediatric age group involving Williams syndrome. (Source: Neurorehabilitation for the Physical Therapist Assistant, p.106)


All significant hand signs listed above for Williams syndrome together cover six out of the nine perspectives of the hand as defined according Multi-Perspective Hand Reading (including hand level 1, 4, 5, 7, 8 & 9).

A summary of the most significant hand sign combinations in Williams syndrome is described here:

Decoding the language of the hand:
hand sign combinations in Williams syndrome!





Hand charts are available for many other diagnostic issues;
start browsing HERE


Martijn van Mensvoort - Hand Research

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